Skip to main content


Land Cover

Land cover refers to all physical and biological material found on the earth’s surface.  This includes natural elements such as grass, trees, water and soil, and also human-created or built environments.

Land Pollution

Land pollution is caused by the dumping of waste and other toxins into the soil, and contamination from boats, oil rigs, and sewage outlets being washed ashore.

Land Reclamation

Land reclamation refers to the process of creating new, dry land on a seabed, or altering waterways or wetlands to create usable land.  It may also refer to the process of restoring land that has experienced environmental damage.


A landfill refers to a site that has low-lying ground or excavated holes for waste disposal.  New waste material is buried in the holes (cells) between thin layers of dirt, with new material being covered by topsoil and compacted routinely at the end of each operating day.  The area is designed to contain the waste, to minimise the release of hazardous substances into the environment.

Landfill Gas

Landfill gas refers to the complex mix of different gases that are produced by decomposing organic material at landfill disposal sites.  Approximately half of landfill gas is methane, with the remainder being mostly carbon dioxide.  Landfill gas can be collected and used to produce heat or electricity.


The term landscape refers to the characteristics, features and structure of an area of land, including its landforms, water bodies, vegetation, human land-use, and temporary elements such as lighting and weather conditions.


Landslide refers to a wide range of ground movements such as large amounts of soil, rocks, mud, and other debris shifting downward and outward along a slope.  A landslide can occur when a slope changes and becomes unstable.  This instability may be caused naturally by erosion, groundwater pressure, loss of vegetation, heavy rains, earthquakes, or by human activities such as deforestation, farming, construction and earthwork.


Leachate refers to water and other liquids that contain contaminants, which have been obtained from contact with waste, pesticides or fertilisers.  Leaching may occur as a result of over-watering in farming areas or water runoff from landfills, and may cause hazardous substances to enter and contaminate soil, surface water and groundwater.

Lead (Pb)

Lead (Pb) is a naturally-occurring heavy metal that is hazardous to human health if inhaled or swallowed.  Lead is used in products for building construction, batteries, bullets, and weights.  It was previously used in gasoline, paints and plumbing compounds before being restricted or eliminated by laws and regulations.  Lead can in found in soil, polluted air or dust, and drinking water.

Less emissions (significantly) - Sustainability Credential

Less emissions (significantly) is a sustainability credential that an Across the Fence trader might claim. Traders claiming this credential can demonstrate that their products, processes or the operation of their products emit significantly less carbon that common market alternatives.

Life Cycle

A life cycle (biological) is a period involving different generations of a particular species succeeding each other through asexual or sexual reproduction.  The life cycle of a product refers to the continual and interlinked stages of a product system including the accumulation of raw materials, product design, manufacturing, product life span and final disposal.

Life Cycle Analysis (LCA)

A life cycle analysis (LCA) is a comprehensive assessment of a product’s environmental impacts throughout its lifetime including acquisition of raw materials, manufacturing processes, product use and waste disposal.

Light Green

Light green refers to the view that economic, social and environmental needs should all be given equal status with a society.  This contrasts with the views of those that are ‘deep green’. 

Light-Emitting Diode (LED)

A light-emitting diode or LED is a semiconductor (a materials product that conducts electricity) that converts energy into light.  LED lighting is more energy efficient than fluorescent and incandescent bulbs, and don't produce heat or burn out, but dim over time.  LED’s have the longest lifespan on any lighting on the market.

Limited processing or raw - Sustainability Credential

Limited processing or raw is a sustainability credential that an Across the Fence trader might claim. Limited processing or raw products have been created with limited processing, having been left in their most natural state possible, to ensure maximum nutrition is remains in the food.

Limiting Factor

A limiting factor, in biological or ecological terms, refers to something whose absence or excessive concentration causes a population of plant or animal species to decrease in size.  Limiting factors may include water, land, food, sunlight or shelter.

Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)

Liquefied petroleum gas or LPG is a flammable mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as a fuel in vehicles, heating appliances, as an aerosol propellant, and as a refrigerant to replace chloroflurocarbons (CFCs) in an effort to reduce ozone layer depletion.

Liquid Wood

Liquid wood is derived from wood pulp-based lignen, and can be combined with a range of other substances to create an eco-friendly alternative to plastic, that can be used for a variety of products and applications.


Localisation is the opposite of globalisation, and refers to a decentralised society where economic activities, powers, and people function in local communities away from a central location or authority.

Locally Made - Sustainability Standard

Locally made is a sustainability standard that an trader might claim.

Purchasing locally made products supports local economies and local workers. By purchasing locally made, you are reducing carbon emissions from products that have to be freighted miles to reach you.

Locally Sourced - Sustainability Standard

Locally sourced is a sustainability standard that an trader might claim.

Locally sourced produce or componentry have less impact on the environment as there is minimal transport. Products like fruit, vegetables, eggs, dairy, honey, if sourced locally will also be sensitive to local conditions like allergies and pollutants. Timber, stone, water, essential oils are all examples of componentry.


A localvore refers to a person that accepts and lives on a locally sourced food diet.  Localvore’s purchase fresh and generally organic fruit, vegetables, meat and small goods directly from farmers and markets within their local area.  By avoiding large-scale farms and reducing transportation needs, localvore’s support the local economy and sustainability of a region, and reduce the environmental impact of their food consumption.


Logging refers to trees being cut down to produce timber for residential needs and commercial business, various wood products or for forest management.

Low Emissivity (Low-E) Windows

Low emissivity or Low-E windows refers to a specially designed coating that improves the insulation properties (thermal efficiency) of windows to lower the amount of energy loss, while letting visible light pass through.  This results greater energy efficiency with radiant heat originating from indoors in winter being reflected back inside, while in summer the infrared heat radiation from the sun is reflected away, keeping the inside area cooler.

Low Energy Lighting

Low energy lighting refers to lighting technology that consumes less electricity and therefore produces fewer greenhouse gas emissions than incandescent light bulbs. The two main types of low energy lighting include fluorescent lamps, both tubes and compact fluorescents (CFLs), and light-emitting diodes (LEDs).

Low Flow

Common plumbing fixtures such as faucets, toilets and shower heads can have a low flow nozzle, fitting or aerator installed to significantly reduce water use.


Low VOC refers to low or zero Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC), which are both human-made and naturally occurring chemical compounds.  VOC’s in some products have been found to produce a strong odour and can cause various health effects such as nausea and headaches.  Low VOC products can include paints, sealants, adhesives, and cleaners that have little to no VOC’s present.